托福写作

新托福写作我的地盘我做主

   发布日期:2015-12-22

 

  在之前两个系列的介绍中,我们了解到ETS公布的独立写作185题库和改革后网考中出现的独立写作题,它们有一定的共性。从应考方面而言,在接触一个新托福独立写作的题目时,我们必须要掌握的是文章的结构。严谨的结构对观点的表达有事半功倍的作用。朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,ETS公布的185题库的题目和近几年的托福网考考题,除了话题上的共性外,在问题模式上和雅思议论文一样,可以归为固定的几类问题模式:
  l 描述解释型
  l 二选一型
  l 比较对比型
  III 比较对比型
  1). 概念判断
  判断一道作文题是否属于比较对比型,可以看题目中是否包含下列词汇:compare and contrastcompareadvantages and disadvantages等。例如:
  1. (4)
  It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why?
  2. (5)
  A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.
  3. (113)
  The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community. Use specific detains in your discussion.
  由上述三道题中的compare and contrastadvantages and disadvantages可以判断它们都属于比较对比型的题目。由此可见,比较对比型和之前介绍过的二选一型有个区别,它要求考生必须两个观点或方面(即优缺点)都要提到,它显然是不能用单边论证结构。它可以采用的结构如下。
  2). 对应结构分析
  双边论证
  根据前一系列的介绍,双边论证基本为四段论,它与单边的最大区别在正文,正文两段分别对题干提出的两个观点或优缺点进行论证。此系列通过上面的例题二来理解这一结构的使用:
  原创范例(5)
  Introduction: The new factory does bring a range of benefits, yet the residents are not advised to establish it.
  Main body 1:
  Topic sentence: Admittedly, the residents and the local government as well gain benefits from the construction of this factory in the community.
  Reason 1: For one thing, a new factory requires plenty of new workers, providing employment opportunities for the community.
  Reason 2: For another, the new factory is certain to pay tax to the indigenous government, and thus enhance the tax income of the whole community.
  Main body 2:
  Topic sentence: However, building a large factory could bring along a great many disadvantages.
  Reason 1: First and foremost, a large factory will definitely produce pollution to the community.
  Reason 2: In the second place, it is possible that traffic jams could happen due to the returning tide during rush hours.
  Reason 3: Last but not least, flowing population resulted from the establishment of the factory will undoubtedly increase, which casts threat to the community.
  半支持半反对结构
  所谓半支持半反对,就是在第二段讨论比较对比设计的两个对象中的一个,在第三段和第四段讨论另一个对象。请参考下面的结构图:
  第一段:引言
  1. 明确话题
  2. 给出文章结构布局
  第二段:弊端/观点一
  1. 分论点一(段落主题句)
  2. 例证一(论证过程)
  第三段:有利之处一/观点二的理由一
  3. 分论点一(段落主题句)
  4. 例证一(论证过程)
  第四段:有利之处二/观点二的理由二
  5. 分论点二(段落主题句)
  6. 例证一(论证过程)
  结尾:
  发表自己的观点
  对应的英文文章结构如下所示:
  Paragraph 1: Introduction
  Background + layout
  Paragraph 2-4: Body
  Disadvantage / reason for opinion one
  Topic Sentence + supporting sentences
  Advantages one / reason one for opinion two
  Topic Sentence + supporting sentences
  Advantages two / reason two for opinion two
  Topic Sentence + supporting sentences
  Paragraph 5: Conclusion:
  State my opinion
  根据上述结构,我们可以改写第二题至以下提纲:
  原创范例(5)
  Introduction: The new factory does bring a range of benefits, yet the residents are not advised to establish it.
  Main body 1: Admittedly, the residents and the local government as well gain benefits from the construction of this factory in the community.
  Main body 2: However, a large factory will definitely produce pollution to the community.
  Main body 3: Moreover, it is possible that traffic jams could happen due to the returning tide during rush hours.
  这一系列文章给大家概括介绍了新托福独立写作的问题模式和对应的文章结构,朗阁海外考试研究中心建议托福考生在考前,必须要掌握这三类模式和对应的结构,并列出每类的模板,才能在考试有限的30分钟时间内游刃有余的在结构上应对。
 
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